Phil Ammann is a St. Petersburg-based journalist and blogger. With more than three decades of writing, editing and management experience, Phil produced material for both print and online, in addition to founding HRNewsDaily.com. His broad range includes covering news, local government and culture reviews for Patch.com, technical articles and profiles for BetterRVing Magazine and advice columns for a metaphysical website, among others. Phil has served as a contributor and production manager for SaintPetersBlog since 2013. He lives in St. Pete with his wife, visual artist Margaret Juul and can be reached at phil@floridapolitics.com and on Twitter @PhilAmmann.
The scope of work is the first step in any appraisal process. Without a strictly defined scope of work, an appraisal's conclusions may not be viable. By defining the scope of work, an appraiser can properly develop a value for a given property for the intended user, and for the intended use of the appraisal. The whole idea of "scope of work" is to provide clear expectations and guidelines for all parties as to what the appraisal report does, and does not, cover; and how much work has gone into it.
In most instances when the cost approach is involved, the overall methodology is a hybrid of the cost and sales comparison approaches (representing both the suppliers' costs and the prices that customers are seeking). For example, the replacement cost to construct a building can be determined by adding the labor, material, and other costs. On the other hand, land values and depreciation must be derived from an analysis of comparable sales data.
In order to account for the usage of the land, the net operating income is reduced by the Liegenschaftszins (interest paid to the land-owner by the owner of the building, i.e., ground rent). The Liegenschaftszins is the product of the land value and the Liegenschaftszinssatz (interest rate for land use). The Liegenschaftszinssatz is the equivalent of the yield—with some important differences—and is also determined by the Gutachterausschuss.
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Real estate valuation in New Zealand is regulated by the New Zealand Institute of Valuers ('NZIV') and the Valuers Registration Board of New Zealand ('VRB'), both of which are statutory bodies established under the Valuers Act 1948 (NZ). The NZIV remains the statutory professional body for valuers in New Zealand, with perpetual succession under the Act (which is under review as at 2015). The NZIV can make Rules as lower level legislation and has a Code of Ethics. The NZIV Rules were last changed in 2012 and remain current. The VRB has jurisdiction in relation to serious matters affecting the registration of a valuer including discipline where a valuer has acted in such a way as to meet the threshold. The Valuers Act 1948 sets the threshold under s31 as matters where a valuer could be struck off the register of valuers. The NZIV has power for discipline for relatively more minor matters. The NZIV governs NZIV members and has power to discipline members and fine them up to $500, admonish members or terminate their membership. The designations "Registered Valuer" and "Public Valuer" are legally protected under the legislation, being reserved for Valuers Registered under the Act. The NZIV, under the Act, can admit non-valuer members (such as non-valuer land economists).
Most of valuations in the country tend to be performed for statutory purposes envisaged by the Federal Valuation Law (the latest amendment in 2016) and other related laws, such as the Joint Stock Companies Law. Such pieces of legislation provide for more than 20 so-called "mandatory cases of valuation", including valuations for privatization purposes, lending purposes, bankruptcy and liquidation etc. Valuations for corporate accounts used to be much more prominent before 2000, when the national accounting regulator ceased to incentivize the accounting fair value option. At present, the mass appraisal of property for taxation purposes is also starting to be outsourced by the Government to the institution of professional valuers.
Congratulations to Rick Singh, CFA, and the Office of the Orange County Property Appraiser for this week's recognition by the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO)! We received the Certificate of Excellence in Assessment Administration for "demonstrating the highest levels of managerial excellence and consistent utilization of practices that exceed the guidelines ... in property assessment administration practices." Shown in the photo (L-R) are Jeff Miller, Terry Taylor, Roger Ross, Tatsiana Sokalava, Rick Singh, Ron Sullivan, and Fred Hill.  
The scope of work is the first step in any appraisal process. Without a strictly defined scope of work, an appraisal's conclusions may not be viable. By defining the scope of work, an appraiser can properly develop a value for a given property for the intended user, and for the intended use of the appraisal. The whole idea of "scope of work" is to provide clear expectations and guidelines for all parties as to what the appraisal report does, and does not, cover; and how much work has gone into it.
The seller can lower the price.If the home was overpriced or the value was inflated, often this is the best solution. It makes the buyer happy and the lender is satisfied. There is no guarantee that if the buyer walks away, the seller won't receive a low appraisal from the second buyer's lender, not to mention the time and trouble it takes to sell the property again. Sometimes a bird in the hand is best.
But the most common reason for value differing from price is that either the buyer or the seller is uninformed as to what a property's market value is but nevertheless agrees on a contract at a certain price which is either too expensive or too cheap. This is unfortunate for one of the two parties. It is the obligation of a real property appraiser to estimate the true market value of a property and not its market price.
Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.
U.S. Regulatory and Professional Standards and Guidelines  USPAP complia​nt valuation and independent-appraisal reviews for federally regulated  banks and financial institutions, asset-based lenders, family offices, endowments and foundations, high net worth individuals, private-equity investors and managed funds and, independent appraisal review expert witness and litigation support services to attorneys and in arbitration / mediation and as umpires.
The International Valuation Standards Council (IVSC) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) member of the United Nations with membership that encompasses all the major national valuation standard-setters and professional associations from 41 different countries (including the Appraisal Institute, the American Society of Appraisers, the RICS, the [Practising Valuers Association of India] and the Appraisal Institute of Canada). IVSC publishes the International Valuation Standards (IVS), now in its 8th edition.

The seller can lower the price.If the home was overpriced or the value was inflated, often this is the best solution. It makes the buyer happy and the lender is satisfied. There is no guarantee that if the buyer walks away, the seller won't receive a low appraisal from the second buyer's lender, not to mention the time and trouble it takes to sell the property again. Sometimes a bird in the hand is best.
 	The Orange County Property Appraiser’s Office has been recognized by the Center for Digital Government with a Government Experience Project Award for effective use of online strategies to support meeting constituent needs and community outreach. The Agency was specifically honored for its outstanding website (ocpafl.org), hosting satellite offices during peak citizen engagement months, and for holding Signature Events like the recent “State of Orange County Real Estate.” “We are deeply honored by this recognition and proud that our ever-evolving outreach strategies continue to reach Orange County’s constituents,” said Singh. “It is important that government keep pace with private industry in communicating through technology to meet and exceed the expectations of our highly skilled users.”	 

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Leasehold value – The interest held by a tenant. If the tenant pays market rent, then the leasehold has no market value. However, if the tenant pays less than the market, the difference between the present value of what is paid and the present value of market rents would be a positive leasehold value. For example, a major chain retailer may be able to negotiate a below-market lease to serve as the anchor tenant for a shopping center. This leasehold value may be transferable to another anchor tenant, and if so the retail tenant has a positive interest in the real estate.
Once you become a Licensed Appraiser, you will be able to perform appraisals on your own. At the Licensed Appraiser level, you can appraise non-complex, one- to four-unit residential properties less than $1,000,000 and complex one- to four-unit residential properties with a transactional value of less than $250,000 in market value. Once you complete the criteria below, you can apply to become a Licensed Appraiser.
Meanwhile, a residential appraiser would focus on those properties where individuals and households are domiciled. This can include condominiums and single homes. Typically a residential appraiser works with properties with no more than four housing units. Larger scale properties, such as multiunit apartment buildings, would likely be classified as a commercial property for the purposes of an appraiser.
Thanks to Jason Taylor for providing an overview of the services provided by the Orange County Emergency Operations Center in the event of disaster in our area to representatives from our Commercial Real Estate team. As many as 80 representatives from government and community organizations can staff this room to work together to meet the needs of the county and its residents. In the aftermath of an incident, appraisers from our office go into the field and assess damage to residential and commercial buildings which is reported to the federal government.  
In 2011 to 2015, the number of Registered Valuers in New Zealand has generally between only around 900 to 950 each year. This is an ageing 'top heavy' professional with difficulty retaining new and young members due to pay, work stress and the recent advent of 'clearing houses' for banks to order valuations for mortgage purposes. The clearing houses have largely ended the long-standing local practice of members of the public seeking advice directly from a valuer. The use of electronic estimates based on Rating Values (Local Government mass appraisal for levies) is also leading to a reduction in standard valuation work and is significantly affecting the viability of small valuation businesses. The profession is in the process of a wider corporate re-structuring of the valuation market due to these factors with various perceptions within profession as to the merits of the events of the last five years.

Despite the fact that appraising becomes a more and more complex task every year, we're able to keep our prices reasonable and quality high by employing technology. Of course, it's been our experience that regardless of the industry, service is the main reason a client comes, goes, stays or refers others. We treat everyone like we'd want to be treated ourselves whether we're in person, on the phone or communicating in e-mail. Our objective is simply a superior experience for our clients. Experience first hand why we're the appraisal firm for you. Call us today.
If you're refinancing a conventional mortgage, a low appraisal can prevent you from doing so. The home needs to appraise at or above the amount you want to refinance for your loan to be approved. However, if your existing mortgage is an FHA mortgage, you can refinance without an appraisal through the FHA Streamline program – a great option for underwater homeowners.
Comment: I am a Real Estate Investor, and I have a property under contract in Gulfport. The house is a fixer upper that needs a lot of work. My intention is to completely remodel this house and resell it. I am looking for a Real Estate Appraiser who can get me an appraisal subject to repairs to confirm the after repair value of the property. I can provide you with my preliminary budget, scope of work and pictures of finished product.
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