Most of valuations in the country tend to be performed for statutory purposes envisaged by the Federal Valuation Law (the latest amendment in 2016) and other related laws, such as the Joint Stock Companies Law. Such pieces of legislation provide for more than 20 so-called "mandatory cases of valuation", including valuations for privatization purposes, lending purposes, bankruptcy and liquidation etc. Valuations for corporate accounts used to be much more prominent before 2000, when the national accounting regulator ceased to incentivize the accounting fair value option. At present, the mass appraisal of property for taxation purposes is also starting to be outsourced by the Government to the institution of professional valuers.
“His 25 years of experience as a professional real estate appraiser, combined with his state certification, and his memberships in many organizations for both Realtors and property appraisers, make him an exceptional candidate for this important office,” Montanari said. “Besides his experience, Mike has the intelligence, character, and the right demeanor to serve all residents of Pinellas County.
In New Zealand, the terms "valuation" and "valuer" usually relates to one who undertakes that professional role in terms of the Valuer Act 1948 requirements or the unregulated or voluntarily self-regulated (if members of PINZ) plant and machinery, marine or art valuers. Whereas, the term "appraisal" is usually related to an estimate by a real estate sales person or licensed agent under the Real Estate Agents Act 2008. The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand includes many valuer members, but the governing legislation for sales and agency (disposal of interests of land on behalf of others) does not extend to include provision for that role by valuers regardless of membership of NZIV, RICS or PINZ.

This growth model is the common language of instruction in Pinellas County Schools and can be used as an instrument for self-reflection, assessment, and deliberate conversations among teachers, those responsible for evaluation, and those coaching or mentoring colleagues. It is designed to be used as a tool to define performance standards, to help interpret the teacher's practice, make informed decisions about ongoing professional development and for evaluation purposes.


As mentioned before, an appraiser can generally choose from three approaches to determine value. One or two of these approaches will usually be most applicable, with the other approach or approaches usually being less useful. The appraiser has to think about the "scope of work", the type of value, the property itself, and the quality and quantity of data available for each approach. No overarching statement can be made that one approach or another is always better than one of the other approaches.
In Russia, on par with many other former Soviet Union economies, the profession emerged in the first half of 1990, and represented a clean break with the former practice of industry-specific pricing specialists and with activities of statutory price-setting authorities in the Soviet Union. Currently, property valuation, as it is called, is a specialism within general-purpose "valuation profession", which functions in a self-regulatory mode overseen by "self-regulated professional organizations" of valuers (SROs), i.e. public supervisory entities established under provisions of special legislation (which very loosely can be likened to trade unions). The principal among those is Russian Society of Appraisers, established in 1993 and presently exercising oversight over about half of the valuation profession membership. Among its 6000+ members a sizeable majority are real property valuers, rubbing shoulders with business and intangible assets appraisers. The latter categories of valuers are also allowed to value property, though valuation professionals tend to specialize. In late 2016, it was mandated that valuers should pass through compulsory state-administered attestation process to verify their competence, the details of which as to breakdown in specialization or otherwise remain to be hammered out.
This article is largely based on an article in the out-of-copyright Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, which was produced in 1911. It should be brought up to date to reflect subsequent history or scholarship (including the references, if any). When you have completed the review, replace this notice with a simple note on this article's talk page. (November 2017)
The proposed property tax rate, or millage rate, is set by various taxing authorities. Pinellas County is one taxing authority. There are others, such as the School Board and the individual municipalities. Based on their proposed budgets, they determine a “proposed” millage rate. One mill is equal to $1 for every $1,000 of taxable property value. Once the proposed millage rate is set, the taxing authority cannot raise it, though it is permitted to set it at a lower rate.
While no appraiser is infallible, his or her opinion of the value of your home is informed by rigorous training, numerous tests, several years of on-the-job experience and required continuing education. They are also required to substantiate every finding in their reports that could influence a home’s value. Appraisers and their employers (often appraisal management companies) are heavily regulated. Consequences of issuing deliberately misleading or biased reports can be severe, so appraisers work hard to remain impartial and keep personal value judgments and prejudices out of their work.
In most instances when the cost approach is involved, the overall methodology is a hybrid of the cost and sales comparison approaches (representing both the suppliers' costs and the prices that customers are seeking). For example, the replacement cost to construct a building can be determined by adding the labor, material, and other costs. On the other hand, land values and depreciation must be derived from an analysis of comparable sales data.
A home appraisal is an unbiased estimate of the true (or fair market) value of what a home is worth. All lenders order an appraisal during the mortgage loan process so that there is an objective way to assess the home’s market value and ensure that the amount of money requested by the borrower is appropriate. The appraisal can include recent sales information for similar properties, the current condition of the property, and the location of the property, i.e., insight as to how the neighborhood impacts the property’s value.
Appraisals can be assigned to nearly any item, including real estate. Appraisals are conducted by individuals called appraisers. Appraisers are educated in a variety of market valuation methods and are recognized by a regulatory authority as being capable of issuing an accurate valuation. For instance, an appraisal on an antique will take into account such variables as age, condition, origin, and availability of authenticating documentation.
Because of a terrible quirk in state law, the next Pinellas County property appraiser will be chosen only by Republicans in the Aug. 30 primary. The two candidates are Mike Twitty, a veteran appraiser in the private sector, and Jim Frishe, a former state legislator. There is no Democratic candidate, but the presence of a write-in candidate in November means only Republicans get to vote in a primary that should be open to all voters. Twitty is the clear choice.

4. Profit method. Used for trading properties where evidence of rates is slight, such as hotels, restaurants and old-age homes. A three-year average of operating income (derived from the profit and loss or income statement) is capitalized using an appropriate yield. Note that since the variables used are inherent to the property and are not market-derived, therefore unless appropriate adjustments are made, the resulting value will be value-in-use or investment value, not market value.
Once you’ve read the appraisal report and reviewed the appraiser’s supporting documents, you can challenge it if you think it is inaccurate or doesn’t take into consideration new or important data about the property or comparable homes. Most lenders review appraisals through a strict system of checks and balances that compares the appraisal report to other appraisals on all known sales in your neighborhood. This internal review system can catch discrepancies that should be investigated, but any information you can provide to your lender will help.
Historically, most valuations in Israel were statutory valuations (such as valuations performed for purposes of Betterment Tax, a tax administered on any gains accruing to the property by way of changes to the local planning) as well as valuations performed for purposes of bank lending. Since Israel implemented the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in 2008, the profession has been engaged in performing valuations for purposes of financial reporting.
“Mike has the knowledge, skills, and professional background to ensure our appraisers office is run efficiently and with excellence,” Brandes said in an email to Florida Politics.  “Mike’s 25 years as a professional real estate appraiser and 21 years as a principal and vice president managing private appraisal offices have given him the experience to expertly carry out the complex and important duties of the property appraiser’s office.
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