The federal government regulates appraisers indirectly because if the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) finds that a particular state's appraiser regulation and certification program is inadequate, then under federal regulations all appraisers in that state would no longer be eligible to conduct appraisals for federally chartered banks.[25] The ASC oversees the TAF. Banks make widespread use of mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities, and would be unable to do so without appraisals.
In addition, there are professional appraisal organizations, organized as private non-profit organizations that date to the Great Depression of the 1930s. One of the oldest in the United States is the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers (ASFMRA), which was founded in 1929.[28] Others were founded as needed and the opportunity arose in specialized fields, such as the Appraisal Institute (AI) and the American Society of Appraisers (ASA) founded in the 1930s, the International Right of Way Association and the National Association of Realtors which were founded after World War II. These organizations all existed to establish and enforce standards, but their influence waned with increasing government regulation. In March 2007, three of these organizations (ASFMRA, ASA, and AI) announced an agreement in principle to merge. NAIFA (National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers), a charter member of The Appraisal Foundation, helped to write Title XI, the Real Estate Appraisal Reform Amendments. It was founded in 1961.
In most instances when the cost approach is involved, the overall methodology is a hybrid of the cost and sales comparison approaches (representing both the suppliers' costs and the prices that customers are seeking). For example, the replacement cost to construct a building can be determined by adding the labor, material, and other costs. On the other hand, land values and depreciation must be derived from an analysis of comparable sales data.
Summary:Commercial Real Estate Appraisals & Brokerage for various commercial property types, including multifamily apartment complexes, mix use vacant land, retail, proposed retail, industrial, office, office condominiums, vacant land subdivisions, mobile home parks, hotel, motels, shopping centers, eminent domain takings, highest and best use analysis, agricultural property, restaurants, insurable values, leased fee valuations, medical office, ad valorem tax disputes, among other property types ...
Leasehold value – The interest held by a tenant. If the tenant pays market rent, then the leasehold has no market value. However, if the tenant pays less than the market, the difference between the present value of what is paid and the present value of market rents would be a positive leasehold value. For example, a major chain retailer may be able to negotiate a below-market lease to serve as the anchor tenant for a shopping center. This leasehold value may be transferable to another anchor tenant, and if so the retail tenant has a positive interest in the real estate.
Federal law requires appraisers to have a state license or certification when working on federally related transactions, such as appraisals for loans made by federally insured banks and financial institutions. The Appraisal Foundation (TAF) offers information on appraisal licensing. There is no such federal requirement for assessors, although some states require certification. For state-specific requirements, applicants should contact their state board.

A property appraiser assesses value by taking into consideration everything that's permanently associated with the property. This includes the property's size and location, and whether it provides a view. If there is a building on the property, the appraiser will look at physical characteristics such as age, the number of bedrooms, and the overall condition of the structure. The appraiser will also consider the value of similar properties in the neighborhood when making a valuation.
Summary:Professional real estate appraiser and expert witness since 1987. Owner of Compass Real Estate Consulting, Inc. in Lakeland, Florida since 1994. Service area concentrated in central Florida, but available for complex appraisal assignments and litigation support nationwide. Has provided appraisal and consulting services in 32 Florida counties, and in Tennessee. Valuation assignments on the island of Guam from 2010 to the present. Serves as an appointed Special Magistrate in several...
In Israel, the real estate appraisal profession is regulated by the Council of Land Valuers, an organ of the Ministry of Justice; the largest professional organization, encompassing the majority of appraisers/land valuers is the Association of Land Valuers. Valuers must be registered with the Council, which is a statutory body set up by law, and which oversees the training and administers the national professional exams that are a prerequisite for attaining registration. In 2005 the Council set up a Valuation Standards Committee with the purpose of developing and promulgating standards that would reflect best practice; these have tended to follow a rules-based approach.
The Federal German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts (Bundesverband Deutscher Sachverständiger und Fachgutachter, abbr. BDSF)[22] is the main professional organization encompassing the majority of licensed appraisers in Germany. In recent years, with the move towards a more global outlook in the valuation profession, the RICS has gained a foothold in Germany, somewhat at the expense of the BDSF. Another German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts is the (Deutsche Sachverständigen Gesellschaft, abbr. DESAG)[23] This organization also includes a large number of licensed appraisers in Germany.
Data is collected on recent sales of properties similar to the subject being valued, called "comparables". Only SOLD properties may be used in an appraisal and determination of a property's value, as they represent amounts actually paid or agreed upon for properties. Sources of comparable data include real estate publications, public records, buyers, sellers, real estate brokers and/or agents, appraisers, and so on. Important details of each comparable sale are described in the appraisal report. Since comparable sales are not identical to the subject property, adjustments may be made for date of sale, location, style, amenities, square footage, site size, etc. The main idea is to simulate the price that would have been paid if each comparable sale were identical to the subject property. If the comparable is superior to the subject in a factor or aspect, then a downward adjustment is needed for that factor.[clarification needed] Likewise, if the comparable is inferior to the subject in an aspect, then an upward adjustment for that aspect is needed.[clarification needed] The adjustment is somewhat subjective and relies on the appraiser's training and experience. From the analysis of the group of adjusted sales prices of the comparable sales, the appraiser selects an indicator of value that is representative of the subject property. It is possible for various appraisers to choose a different indicator of value which ultimately will provide different property value.

NOTICE: The Hillsborough County Property Appraiser’s office has released an addendum to its Invitation For Bid No. 8254, Full Hybrid (Gas-Electric) car leasing project. This addendum includes a revision to the minimum requirement for the Excess Wear & Tear Agreement, the removal of the requirement for a Non-Appropriation of Funds Clause, and an extension of both the Response Submittal Deadline and Tentative Award Date. For details of the addendum, please click here.


Amortization Annual Income Appraisal Appraisal Fee APR ARM Balloon Payment Bankruptcy Borrower Cash-Out Refinance Closing Checklist Closing Costs Closing Disclosure Co-Borrower Conventional Loan Cosigner Credit History Credit Report Credit Requirements Debt Ratio Disclosure Discount Points Down Payment Down Payment Grant Earnest Money Eligibility Equity Escrow Fannie Mae FHA FHA Funding Fee FHA Handbook FHA Limits FHA Loan FHA Minimum Standards FHA One-Time Close FHA Refinance FHA Requirements FICO Score First-Time Homebuyer Fixed Rate Mortgage Foreclosure Freddie Mac Good Faith Estimate Home Equity Loan Home Inspection HUD HUD-1 Settlement Statement Identity Theft Interest Rate Joint Loan Jumbo Loan Lender Loan Application Loan Approval Loan Balance Loan Officer Loan Term Loan-to-Value Ratio MIP Monthly Payment Mortgage Mortgage Closing Obama Mortgage Origination Fee Owner Occupied PMI Pre-Approval Prepayment Prequalification Principal Property Tax Property Title Reverse Mortgage Second Mortgage Single Family Home Streamline Refinance Subprime Mortgage
Dallas Central Appraisal District (DCAD) is responsible for appraising property for the purpose of ad valorem property tax assessment on behalf of the 61 local governing bodies in Dallas County . The appraisal district is a political subdivision of the State of Texas. Our duties include establishing and maintaining accurate property values for all real and business personal property. The Texas Property Tax Code is the primary source of law and guidance for the Texas property tax system.
Real estate valuation in New Zealand is regulated by the New Zealand Institute of Valuers ('NZIV') and the Valuers Registration Board of New Zealand ('VRB'), both of which are statutory bodies established under the Valuers Act 1948 (NZ). The NZIV remains the statutory professional body for valuers in New Zealand, with perpetual succession under the Act (which is under review as at 2015). The NZIV can make Rules as lower level legislation and has a Code of Ethics. The NZIV Rules were last changed in 2012 and remain current. The VRB has jurisdiction in relation to serious matters affecting the registration of a valuer including discipline where a valuer has acted in such a way as to meet the threshold. The Valuers Act 1948 sets the threshold under s31 as matters where a valuer could be struck off the register of valuers. The NZIV has power for discipline for relatively more minor matters. The NZIV governs NZIV members and has power to discipline members and fine them up to $500, admonish members or terminate their membership. The designations "Registered Valuer" and "Public Valuer" are legally protected under the legislation, being reserved for Valuers Registered under the Act. The NZIV, under the Act, can admit non-valuer members (such as non-valuer land economists).

Because the appraisal primarily protects the lender's interests, the lender will usually order the appraisal. According to the Appraisal Institute, an association of professional real estate appraisers, a qualified appraiser should be licensed or certified (as required in all 50 states) and be familiar with the local area. Federal regulations state that the appraiser must be impartial and have no direct or indirect interest in the transaction. Fannie Mae requires appraisers to certify that they have experience appraising similar properties in the same geographic area.


Our office is always looking to grow and better serve the residents of Polk County and you can help us achieve our goal by becoming part of our team. As an equal opportunity employer, offering a great working environment with competitive pay and substantial benefits; the PCPA office can provide you with new opportunities and the start of a rewarding career.
I just wanted to let you know how helpful Mike Nichols was in helping us through a complicated situation in a real estate transaction where a tax certificate had been sold on the subject property. He went above and beyond the call of duty, patiently explaining the situation separately to all three parties involved. The issue was resolved with his help and his response was excellent.
Remember this: appraisers are looking at the condition of what’s permanently part of or attached to the house. They’re not evaluating the décor or furniture or anything that’s not affixed to the property; what’s most important are your home’s physical characteristics (age, square footage, the number of bedrooms and baths, lot size, location, view) as well as their observable condition.
In New Zealand, the terms "valuation" and "valuer" usually relates to one who undertakes that professional role in terms of the Valuer Act 1948 requirements or the unregulated or voluntarily self-regulated (if members of PINZ) plant and machinery, marine or art valuers. Whereas, the term "appraisal" is usually related to an estimate by a real estate sales person or licensed agent under the Real Estate Agents Act 2008. The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand includes many valuer members, but the governing legislation for sales and agency (disposal of interests of land on behalf of others) does not extend to include provision for that role by valuers regardless of membership of NZIV, RICS or PINZ.
A new construction home will require an appraisal if it's being financed. This appraisal will enable the mortgage lender to determine if the property's value is commensurate with the size of the loan being requested. New construction homes can be difficult to appraise. With existing homes, comparable properties are used to establish value. With many new construction homes, comparable properties do not exist, and this can present valuation challenges.
In a commercial income-producing property this approach capitalizes an income stream into a value indication. This can be done using revenue multipliers or capitalization rates applied to a Net Operating Income (NOI). Usually, an NOI has been stabilized so as not to place too much weight on a very recent event. An example of this is an unleased building which, technically, has no NOI. A stabilized NOI would assume that the building is leased at a normal rate, and to usual occupancy levels. The Net Operating Income (NOI) is gross potential income (GPI), less vacancy and collection loss (= Effective Gross Income) less operating expenses (but excluding debt service, income taxes, and/or depreciation charges applied by accountants).
Real estate appraisal in Germany is partly codified by law. The federal Baugesetzbuch (abbr. BauGB, "German statutory code on building and construction'") contains guidelines on governing authorities, defines the term market value and refers to continuative rules (chapter 3, articles 192 ff.). Each municipality (city or administrative district) must form a Gutachterausschuss (appraisal committee), consisting of a chairman and honorary members.[18] The committee gathers information on all real estate deals (it is mandatory to send a copy of each notarial purchase contract to the Gutachterausschuss) and includes it in the Kaufpreissammlung (purchase price database). Most committees publish an official real estate market report every two years, in which besides other information on comparables the land value is determined. The committees also perform appraisals on behalf of public authorities.

A property's appraisal value is influenced by recent sales of similar properties and by current market trends. The home's amenities, the number of bedrooms and bathrooms, floor plan functionality and square footage are also key factors in assessing the home's value. The appraiser must do a complete visual inspection of the interior and exterior and note any conditions that adversely affect the property's value, such as needed repairs.
For the 2014-15 tax roll, Hillsborough County Property Appraiser Bob Henriquez has implemented a cutting-edge desktop appraisal software system that is already saving taxpayers thousands of dollars in assessment and property review costs while potentially adding millions of dollars in revenue for county and city budgets in the coming years. Click Here To Learn More
The Trainee Appraiser level does not have an experience requirement. Each Trainee Appraiser must be supervised to get the required hours of experience before applying for the Licensed Residential Appraiser level. Locating a certified appraiser is a very important step to becoming an appraiser. The trainee and supervisory appraiser must keep a log of work completed that will be reviewed when the trainee applies for any license to the state regulatory body. Effective January 1, 2015, all new Trainee (Beginning) Appraisers and Supervisory Appraisers are required to complete an approved Supervisor/Trainee course before they will be able to log experience hours.
Just released numbers from VISIT FLORIDA indicate another banner year for tourism. Some 65.5 million visitors graced the Sunshine State in the first six months. That’s more than in any six month period in the state’s history, and a nearly 6% increase over last year. Certainly a strong start to the year, but what impact will the red tide on the west coast have? Or will a hurricane damage the momentum? Good news for sure, but we must continue to diversify Florida’s jobs and make sure that the state is not only a fun place to visit.  
Adjudication of valuer-certified estimates of value in case of the onset of disputes is conducted through the Experts Councils of valuers' SROs. Official courts tend to concur with the resolutions of such Councils. In some rare instances the imprimatur of SRO's Experts Councils is also required for a valuation done by a particular valuer to enter into effect.
In New Zealand, the terms "valuation" and "valuer" usually relates to one who undertakes that professional role in terms of the Valuer Act 1948 requirements or the unregulated or voluntarily self-regulated (if members of PINZ) plant and machinery, marine or art valuers. Whereas, the term "appraisal" is usually related to an estimate by a real estate sales person or licensed agent under the Real Estate Agents Act 2008. The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand includes many valuer members, but the governing legislation for sales and agency (disposal of interests of land on behalf of others) does not extend to include provision for that role by valuers regardless of membership of NZIV, RICS or PINZ.
Remember this: appraisers are looking at the condition of what’s permanently part of or attached to the house. They’re not evaluating the décor or furniture or anything that’s not affixed to the property; what’s most important are your home’s physical characteristics (age, square footage, the number of bedrooms and baths, lot size, location, view) as well as their observable condition.

Automated valuation models (AVMs) are growing in acceptance. These rely on statistical models such as multiple regression analysis, machine learning algorithms or geographic information systems (GIS).[17] While AVMs can be quite accurate, particularly when used in a very homogeneous area, there is also evidence that AVMs are not accurate in other instances such as when they are used in rural areas, or when the appraised property does not conform well to the neighborhood.

In New Zealand, the terms "valuation" and "valuer" usually relates to one who undertakes that professional role in terms of the Valuer Act 1948 requirements or the unregulated or voluntarily self-regulated (if members of PINZ) plant and machinery, marine or art valuers. Whereas, the term "appraisal" is usually related to an estimate by a real estate sales person or licensed agent under the Real Estate Agents Act 2008. The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand includes many valuer members, but the governing legislation for sales and agency (disposal of interests of land on behalf of others) does not extend to include provision for that role by valuers regardless of membership of NZIV, RICS or PINZ.
If your loan is a conventional loan, then it is subject to the rules of the Home Valuation Code of Conduct (HVCC). Barb Torres, an accredited senior appraiser says, "As soon as the parties find an appraiser is coming out who is not familiar with the local market, they have every right to contact the lender (preferably in writing) to DEMAND a local appraiser be used."

To qualify, the homestead property must have been uninhabitable for at least 30 days and affected owners must file a sworn application for Abatement of Taxes for Homestead Residential Improvements (DR-463) along with supporting documentation to the Property Appraiser. If approved, the Property Appraiser will issue an official written statement to the Tax Collector, who will calculate and issue the credit.
Summary:Commercial Real Estate Appraisals & Brokerage for various commercial property types, including multifamily apartment complexes, mix use vacant land, retail, proposed retail, industrial, office, office condominiums, vacant land subdivisions, mobile home parks, hotel, motels, shopping centers, eminent domain takings, highest and best use analysis, agricultural property, restaurants, insurable values, leased fee valuations, medical office, ad valorem tax disputes, among other property types ...
At other times, a buyer may willingly pay a premium price, above the generally accepted market value, if his subjective valuation of the property (its investment value for him) was higher than the market value. One specific example of this is an owner of a neighboring property who, by combining his own property with the subject property, could obtain economies-of-scale. Similar situations sometimes happen in corporate finance. For example, this can occur when a merger or acquisition happens at a price which is higher than the value represented by the price of the underlying stock. The usual explanation for these types of mergers and acquisitions is that "the sum is greater than its parts", since full ownership of a company provides full control of it. This is something that purchasers will sometimes pay a high price for. This situation can happen in real estate purchases too.
In Germany, real estate appraisal is known as real estate valuation (Immobilienbewertung). Real estate appraisers (Immobilienbewerter or Gutachter) can qualify to become a Öffentlich bestellter und vereidigter Sachverständiger (officially appointed and sworn expert). However, this formerly very important title has lost a lot of its importance over the past years, but still is of some value in court procedures. The title is not generally required for appraisals.

Mail: Request public records by mail. Send your request to: Public Records Request, Pinellas County Marketing & Communications, located at, 333 Chestnut St., Clearwater, FL 33756. To help us expedite and avoid delays in processing your request, please be as detailed as possible with the information you are requesting. The request will be reviewed and forwarded to the department liaison responsible for processing your request. You will be notified by mail to let you know that your request has been received and the steps required to complete your request.
×