In New Zealand, the terms "valuation" and "valuer" usually relates to one who undertakes that professional role in terms of the Valuer Act 1948 requirements or the unregulated or voluntarily self-regulated (if members of PINZ) plant and machinery, marine or art valuers. Whereas, the term "appraisal" is usually related to an estimate by a real estate sales person or licensed agent under the Real Estate Agents Act 2008. The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand includes many valuer members, but the governing legislation for sales and agency (disposal of interests of land on behalf of others) does not extend to include provision for that role by valuers regardless of membership of NZIV, RICS or PINZ.

Meanwhile, a residential appraiser would focus on those properties where individuals and households are domiciled. This can include condominiums and single homes. Typically a residential appraiser works with properties with no more than four housing units. Larger scale properties, such as multiunit apartment buildings, would likely be classified as a commercial property for the purposes of an appraiser.


The four domains of the Marzano Teacher Evaluation Model contain 60 total elements and build on each other to support teacher growth, development and performance. Unlike other evaluation models, the Marzano Model is a coaching model that focuses on Domain 1: Classroom Strategies and Behaviors, which contains not only the largest number of elements but also those that have been shown in causal studies to have the most direct effect on student performance. 
Summary:Commercial Real Estate Appraisals & Brokerage for various commercial property types, including multifamily apartment complexes, mix use vacant land, retail, proposed retail, industrial, office, office condominiums, vacant land subdivisions, mobile home parks, hotel, motels, shopping centers, eminent domain takings, highest and best use analysis, agricultural property, restaurants, insurable values, leased fee valuations, medical office, ad valorem tax disputes, among other property types ...
There can be differences between what the property is really worth (market value) and what it cost to buy it (price). A price paid might not represent that property's market value. Sometimes, special considerations may have been present, such as a special relationship between the buyer and the seller where one party had control or significant influence over the other party. In other cases, the transaction may have been just one of several properties sold or traded between two parties. In such cases, the price paid for any particular piece is not its market "value" (with the idea usually being, though, that all the pieces and prices add up to the market value of all the parts) but rather its market "price".
The COUNTY TAX COLLECTOR (note: NOT part of our office) mailed the annual tax bills during the first week of November. Tax bills become delinquent if not paid in full before April 1 of the following year. Discounts are available for early payments. Also, you may make partial payments of your current year taxes until the March 30 statutory payment deadline. After that date, any taxes still owing become delinquent. The Property Appraiser does NOT set your tax rate nor collect the taxes. The Property Appraiser is responsible for ensuring the fair assessment (value) of all properties and applying all exemptions. Your County Commission, School Board, City Commission, Water District, and other boards set your tax rates.
U.S. Regulatory and Professional Standards and Guidelines  USPAP complia​nt valuation and independent-appraisal reviews for federally regulated  banks and financial institutions, asset-based lenders, family offices, endowments and foundations, high net worth individuals, private-equity investors and managed funds and, independent appraisal review expert witness and litigation support services to attorneys and in arbitration / mediation and as umpires.
The federal government regulates appraisers indirectly because if the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) finds that a particular state's appraiser regulation and certification program is inadequate, then under federal regulations all appraisers in that state would no longer be eligible to conduct appraisals for federally chartered banks.[25] The ASC oversees the TAF. Banks make widespread use of mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities, and would be unable to do so without appraisals.
NOTICE: The Hillsborough County Property Appraiser’s office announces a Request for Proposals (RFP) for qualified consultants to provide high-resolution aerial photography services. The deadline for the submission of bids is Dec. 20 at 2 p.m. A pre-bid meeting for prospective bidders is scheduled for Dec. 6 at 10 a.m. at the HCPA office in Tampa. All interested firms can obtain a copy of the RFP by
Although appraisers and assessors of real estate work in offices, they may spend a large part of their time conducting site visits to assess properties. Time spent away from the office depends on the specialty. For example, residential appraisers tend to spend less time on office work than commercial appraisers, who might spend up to several weeks analyzing information and writing reports on one property. Appraisers who work for banks and mortgage companies generally spend most of their time inside the office, making site visits only when necessary.
For example, single apartment buildings of a given quality tend to sell at a particular price per apartment. In many of those cases, the sales comparison approach may be more applicable. On the other hand, a multiple-building apartment complex would usually be valued by the income approach, as that would follow how most buyers would value it. As another example, single-family houses are most commonly valued with the greatest weighting to the sales comparison approach. However, if a single-family dwelling is in a neighborhood where all or most of the dwellings are rental units, then some variant of the income approach may be more useful. So the choice of valuation method can change depending upon the circumstances, even if the property being valued does not change much.
In order to become a Licensed Residential Appraiser, and earn the right to do appraisals on your own, most states require you to become a Trainee Appraiser and obtain experience. Many states have different titles for the Trainee Appraiser license level, such as Apprentice Appraiser or Registered Appraiser. Some states do not have a formal Trainee Appraiser license level. You can learn more about your state’s requirements by going to their regulatory website. Click here to find your state.

One of the most recognized professional organizations of real estate appraisers in America is the Appraisal Institute (AI). It was formed from the merger of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers and the Society of Real Estate Appraisers. Founded along with others in the 1930s, the two organizations merged in the 1990s to form the AI. This group awards two professional designations: SRA, to residential appraisers, and MAI, to commercial appraisers. The Institute has enacted rigorous regulations regarding the use and display of these designations. For example, contrary to popular belief, "MAI" does not stand for "Member, Appraisal Institute". According to the institute, the letters "do not represent specific words", and an MAI may not use the words "Member, Appraisal Institute" in lieu of the MAI mark. The primary motive for this rule is to prevent trademark dilution.


The cost approach was once called the summation approach. The theory is that the value of a property can be estimated by summing the land value and the depreciated value of any improvements. The value of the improvements is often referred to by the abbreviation RCNLD (for "reproduction/replacement cost new less depreciation"). Reproduction refers to reproducing an exact replica; replacement cost refers to the cost of building a house or other improvement which has the same utility, but using modern design, workmanship and materials. In practice, appraisers almost always use replacement cost and then deduct a factor for any functional dis-utility associated with the age of the subject property. An exception to the general rule of using the replacement cost is for some insurance value appraisals. In those cases, reproduction of the exact asset after a destructive event like a fire is the goal.
These appraisers also perform valuations on commercial property ranging from single to multiple tenant office buildings, shopping centers, retail, industrial, malls, hospitals, health care facilities, warehouses, and hotels to multi-family apartment buildings, co-ops, senior housing, condominium developments, and even vacant land, agricultural, and golf courses.  Regardless of the property type or local zoning, they'll determine the highest and best use of the project and assess the value using the actual or projected cash flow from the property's rent roll and financial statements, using both cap rates for capitalizing year one net operating income (NOI) and discounted cash flow (DCF) of multiple future income streams.  If you're a commercial lender, investor, builder, contractor, architect, or agent, you'll want to use these appraisers to conduct a feasibility analysis of any income producing real estate project you may be considering.  They can also help consult on construction costs and projected absorption rates.  They generally produce a commercial narrative appraisal when engaged for any commercial assignment.
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