The sales comparison approach is based primarily on the principle of substitution. This approach assumes a prudent (or rational) individual will pay no more for a property than it would cost to purchase a comparable substitute property. The approach recognizes that a typical buyer will compare asking prices and seek to purchase the property that meets his or her wants and needs for the lowest cost. In developing the sales comparison approach, the appraiser attempts to interpret and measure the actions of parties involved in the marketplace, including buyers, sellers, and investors.
Lenders want to make sure that homeowners are not overborrowing for a property because the home serves as collateral for the mortgage. If the borrower should default on the mortgage and go into foreclosure, the lender will recoup the money it lent by selling the home. The appraisal helps the bank protect itself against lending more than it might be able to recover in this worst-case scenario.
The federal government regulates appraisers indirectly because if the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) finds that a particular state's appraiser regulation and certification program is inadequate, then under federal regulations all appraisers in that state would no longer be eligible to conduct appraisals for federally chartered banks.[25] The ASC oversees the TAF. Banks make widespread use of mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities, and would be unable to do so without appraisals.
 	Congratulations to the Town of Eatonville Florida for winning a $25,000 grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for improving the overall health of its residents. Initiatives such as Healthy Eatonville Place caught the attention of the foundation because of its community outreach success in diabetes prevention and management. Town officials also showcased programs addressing economic issues that affect physical health like access to healthy food with a community garden with organic fruits and vegetables offered free of charge to residents. As one of the smallest cities or towns in Orange County, Eatonville is an excellent example of grass roots problem solving.	 

The report must include a street map showing the appraised property and comparable sales used; an exterior building sketch; an explanation of how the square footage was calculated; photographs of the home's front, back and street scene; front exterior photographs of each comparable property used; and any other information, such as market sales data, public land records and public tax records, that the appraiser uses to determine the property's fair market value. An appraisal costs several hundred dollars, and generally, the borrower pays this fee.

The income capitalization Approach (often referred to simply as the "income approach") is used to value commercial and investment properties. Because it is intended to directly reflect or model the expectations and behaviors of typical market participants, this approach is generally considered the most applicable valuation technique for income-producing properties, where sufficient market data exists.


The Federal German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts (Bundesverband Deutscher Sachverständiger und Fachgutachter, abbr. BDSF)[22] is the main professional organization encompassing the majority of licensed appraisers in Germany. In recent years, with the move towards a more global outlook in the valuation profession, the RICS has gained a foothold in Germany, somewhat at the expense of the BDSF. Another German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts is the (Deutsche Sachverständigen Gesellschaft, abbr. DESAG)[23] This organization also includes a large number of licensed appraisers in Germany.
This information was derived from data which was compiled by the DeSoto County Property Appraiser Office solely for the governmental purpose of property assessment. This information should not be relied upon by anyone as a determination of the ownership of property or market value. No warranties, expressed or implied, are provided for the accuracy of the data herein, it's use, or it's interpretation. Although it is periodically updated, this information may not reflect the data currently on file in the Property Appraiser's office. The assessed values are NOT certified values and therefore are subject to change before being finalized for ad valorem assessment purposes.

I just wanted to let you know how helpful Mike Nichols was in helping us through a complicated situation in a real estate transaction where a tax certificate had been sold on the subject property. He went above and beyond the call of duty, patiently explaining the situation separately to all three parties involved. The issue was resolved with his help and his response was excellent.
On February 1, 2018, the AQB adopted new experience requirements to become a Licensed or Certified Appraiser. The requirements are effective May 1, 2018 in states that choose to adopt these criteria. States can opt to keep the old criteria as these are more stringent than the new requirements. You are required to complete 1,000 hours of experience in no less than 6 months. These hours must be directly supervised by an acceptable supervisory appraiser. Appraisers are required to maintain a log jointly with the supervisory appraiser.

If you're refinancing a conventional mortgage, a low appraisal can prevent you from doing so. The home needs to appraise at or above the amount you want to refinance for your loan to be approved. However, if your existing mortgage is an FHA mortgage, you can refinance without an appraisal through the FHA Streamline program – a great option for underwater homeowners.
The Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) demanded all the states to develop systems for licensing and certifying real estate appraisers.[26] To accomplish this, the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) was formed within the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC), with representatives from the various Federal mortgage regulatory agencies.[27] Thus, currently all the real estate appraisers must be state-licensed and certified. But prior to the 1990s, there were no commonly accepted standards either for appraisal quality or for appraiser licensure. In the 1980s, an ad-hoc committee representing various appraisal professional organizations in the United States and Canada met to codify the best practices into what became known as the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP). The U.S. Savings and Loan Crisis resulted in increased federal regulation via the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989, which required federal lending regulators to adopt appraisal standards. A nonprofit organization, The Appraisal Foundation (TAF), was formed by the same organizations that had developed USPAP, and the copyright for USPAP was signed over to TAF. Federal oversight of TAF is provided by the Appraisal Subcommittee, made up of representatives of various federal lending regulators. TAF carries out its work through two boards: the Appraisal Standards Board promulgates and updates USPAP; the Appraisal Qualifications Board (AQB) promulgates minimum recommended standards for appraiser certification and licensure. During the 1990s, all of the states adopted USPAP as the governing standards within their states and developed licensure standards which met or exceeded the recommendations of TAF. Also, the various state and federal courts have adopted USPAP for real estate litigation and all of the federally lending regulators adopt USPAP for mortgage finance appraisal.[27]
As always, the Property Appraiser's office is ready to answer any of your value or exemption questions. Please remember that our office does not set the millage rates, adopt budgets or collect taxes. If your questions concern any of those issues, please contact the taxing authority listed in the notice. Their meeting dates, locations and times are printed on the back side of the form.
Barkett Realty is a perceptive team of professionals focused in the Tampa Bay area. Relationships and communication are at the forefront of our business and our team culture encourages open communication about market data, trends and activity. We use industry-leading technology, local resources and our network of contacts to identify opportunities for our clients.
In most instances when the cost approach is involved, the overall methodology is a hybrid of the cost and sales comparison approaches (representing both the suppliers' costs and the prices that customers are seeking). For example, the replacement cost to construct a building can be determined by adding the labor, material, and other costs. On the other hand, land values and depreciation must be derived from an analysis of comparable sales data.
The sales comparison approach is based primarily on the principle of substitution. This approach assumes a prudent (or rational) individual will pay no more for a property than it would cost to purchase a comparable substitute property. The approach recognizes that a typical buyer will compare asking prices and seek to purchase the property that meets his or her wants and needs for the lowest cost. In developing the sales comparison approach, the appraiser attempts to interpret and measure the actions of parties involved in the marketplace, including buyers, sellers, and investors.

Barkett Realty is a perceptive team of professionals focused in the Tampa Bay area. Relationships and communication are at the forefront of our business and our team culture encourages open communication about market data, trends and activity. We use industry-leading technology, local resources and our network of contacts to identify opportunities for our clients.
As mentioned before, an appraiser can generally choose from three approaches to determine value. One or two of these approaches will usually be most applicable, with the other approach or approaches usually being less useful. The appraiser has to think about the "scope of work", the type of value, the property itself, and the quality and quantity of data available for each approach. No overarching statement can be made that one approach or another is always better than one of the other approaches.
The requirements to become a fully qualified appraiser or assessor of real estate are complex and vary by state and, sometimes, by the value or type of property. Most appraisers and assessors of residential or commercial property must have at least a bachelor’s degree to obtain certification. The entry-level state license category typically does not require a bachelor’s degree. Check with your state's licensing board for specific requirements for both assessors and appraisers.
As always, the Property Appraiser's office is ready to answer any of your value or exemption questions. Please remember that our office does not set the millage rates, adopt budgets or collect taxes. If your questions concern any of those issues, please contact the taxing authority listed in the notice. Their meeting dates, locations and times are printed on the back side of the form.
In New Zealand, the terms "valuation" and "valuer" usually relates to one who undertakes that professional role in terms of the Valuer Act 1948 requirements or the unregulated or voluntarily self-regulated (if members of PINZ) plant and machinery, marine or art valuers. Whereas, the term "appraisal" is usually related to an estimate by a real estate sales person or licensed agent under the Real Estate Agents Act 2008. The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand includes many valuer members, but the governing legislation for sales and agency (disposal of interests of land on behalf of others) does not extend to include provision for that role by valuers regardless of membership of NZIV, RICS or PINZ.
In New Zealand, the terms "valuation" and "valuer" usually relates to one who undertakes that professional role in terms of the Valuer Act 1948 requirements or the unregulated or voluntarily self-regulated (if members of PINZ) plant and machinery, marine or art valuers. Whereas, the term "appraisal" is usually related to an estimate by a real estate sales person or licensed agent under the Real Estate Agents Act 2008. The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand includes many valuer members, but the governing legislation for sales and agency (disposal of interests of land on behalf of others) does not extend to include provision for that role by valuers regardless of membership of NZIV, RICS or PINZ.
In most instances, an appraiser will spend their time determining the value of one piece of property at a time. Building up their expertise in making their assessments often leads appraisers to specialize in a particular area of real estate. For example, a commercial appraiser could focus on the market for office buildings, hotels, retail locations, and other properties that include an income generating quality.
The National Association of Appraisers (NAA) was formed with a purpose of uniting those engaged in the appraisal profession for the purpose of exerting a beneficial influence upon the profession and to advocate appraiser interests. The NAA has established an advisory group consisting of leadership at the state organizations and coalitions called the Board of Governors where those states can help guide the NAA in acting in the best interest of all appraisers. The NAA also has a designated membership, MNAA (Member of the National Association of Appraisers, who is an individual who holds an appraisal license, certification or similar appraisal credential issued by a governmental agency; and who accepts the membership requirements and objectives of the National Association of Appraisers.
In order to become a Licensed Residential Appraiser, and earn the right to do appraisals on your own, most states require you to become a Trainee Appraiser and obtain experience. Many states have different titles for the Trainee Appraiser license level, such as Apprentice Appraiser or Registered Appraiser. Some states do not have a formal Trainee Appraiser license level. You can learn more about your state’s requirements by going to their regulatory website. Click here to find your state.

The various U.S. appraisal groups and international professional appraisal organizations have started collaborating in recent years towards the development of International Valuation Standards. This will facilitate global real estate appraisal standards, a much-needed adjunct to real estate investment portfolios which cross national boundaries. Some appraisal groups are already international organizations and thus, to some extent, already incorporate some level of global standards.


Leasehold value – The interest held by a tenant. If the tenant pays market rent, then the leasehold has no market value. However, if the tenant pays less than the market, the difference between the present value of what is paid and the present value of market rents would be a positive leasehold value. For example, a major chain retailer may be able to negotiate a below-market lease to serve as the anchor tenant for a shopping center. This leasehold value may be transferable to another anchor tenant, and if so the retail tenant has a positive interest in the real estate.
Summary:I have a life long career as an expert in predominately real estate valuation issues & legal support that I'm very passionate about and proud of. I'm always open to the most complex valuations, and to new opportunities and partnerships, but here is what I current do: Valuexpose™ Software and Real Estate Consulting - I am the Co-Founder and CEO of this financial analysis consulting agency. We specialize in helping companies and individuals in three areas: Legal Support: We create...
WertV's general regulations are further supported by the Wertermittlungsrichtlinie (abbr. WertR, "directive on the determination of value").[21] The WertR provides templates for calculations, tables (e.g., economic depreciation) and guidelines for the consideration of different influences. WertV and WertR are not binding for appraisals for nonofficial use, nonetheless, they should be regarded as best practice or Generally Accepted (German) Valuation Practice (GAVP).
The scope of work is the first step in any appraisal process. Without a strictly defined scope of work, an appraisal's conclusions may not be viable. By defining the scope of work, an appraiser can properly develop a value for a given property for the intended user, and for the intended use of the appraisal. The whole idea of "scope of work" is to provide clear expectations and guidelines for all parties as to what the appraisal report does, and does not, cover; and how much work has gone into it.
An appraisal is an unbiased professional opinion of a home's value. Appraisals are almost always used in purchase and sale transactions and commonly used in refinance transactions. In a purchase and sale transaction, an appraisal is used to determine whether the home's contract price is appropriate given the home's condition, location, and features. In a refinance, it assures the lender that it isn't handing the borrower more money than the home is worth. 
With effect from the 1st of August 2017, new amendements to the Federal Valuation Law came to impose the compulsory certification of valuers by a state-affiliated testing centre. Consequently, this 2 hour written-exam certification measure, aimed to counter a perception of wide-spread malpractice among the members of the national valuation profession, provides for 3 valuer-specializations: real estate valuers, plant and machinery valuers, and business and intanglble asset valuers, with the exam content requirements varying substantially for each specialization. Valuers would lose a right to practice, unless they comply with the requirement to take this compulsory certification exam at or before March 31, 2018. A general assessment of this measure is that the numbers of certified valuers in Russia are set to dwindle down to some 2000-3000 valuers nationwide (across all the specialisms mentioned), i.e. decimating some 80% of the current Valuer SRO's membership, due to the complexity of the certification exams.
WertV's general regulations are further supported by the Wertermittlungsrichtlinie (abbr. WertR, "directive on the determination of value").[21] The WertR provides templates for calculations, tables (e.g., economic depreciation) and guidelines for the consideration of different influences. WertV and WertR are not binding for appraisals for nonofficial use, nonetheless, they should be regarded as best practice or Generally Accepted (German) Valuation Practice (GAVP).
With effect from the 1st of August 2017, new amendements to the Federal Valuation Law came to impose the compulsory certification of valuers by a state-affiliated testing centre. Consequently, this 2 hour written-exam certification measure, aimed to counter a perception of wide-spread malpractice among the members of the national valuation profession, provides for 3 valuer-specializations: real estate valuers, plant and machinery valuers, and business and intanglble asset valuers, with the exam content requirements varying substantially for each specialization. Valuers would lose a right to practice, unless they comply with the requirement to take this compulsory certification exam at or before March 31, 2018. A general assessment of this measure is that the numbers of certified valuers in Russia are set to dwindle down to some 2000-3000 valuers nationwide (across all the specialisms mentioned), i.e. decimating some 80% of the current Valuer SRO's membership, due to the complexity of the certification exams.
Adjudication of valuer-certified estimates of value in case of the onset of disputes is conducted through the Experts Councils of valuers' SROs. Official courts tend to concur with the resolutions of such Councils. In some rare instances the imprimatur of SRO's Experts Councils is also required for a valuation done by a particular valuer to enter into effect.
I spoke with John about getting an appraisal for the home I was purchasing and even though it was short notice, he was able to fit me in the next week. I gave him my information and told him the last inspector I called had agreed but had to back out when he found out how large the house was, but John said it would be no problem, and figured it would take a couple of days to do the appraisal and get the proper amount of comps. I had no problem with his fee, as I know that large houses can cost even more to inspect and appraise and thought his prices were reasonable-- especially considering how quickly he was going to get it done. Right after our phone conversation he sent me an email and sent the contract, which I signed and emailed back, and gave him my credit card info., which made it very easy to deal with versus writing another check-- which you write so many of in the house purchasing process. He arrived promptly and introduced himself, and was just as pleasant in person as he was on the phone. He did a thorough job of going through the house, and really seemed to know his business very well. He was nice enough to point out some positive aspects about the house we were purchasing, and pointed out many details. He was very knowledgeable about the housing industry and houses in general as well, and after business talk, it was nice he took the time to just chit chat for a bit. After speaking with me on the phone and chatting at the house, he gave me some great information about places he thought I would be interested in visiting, because he figured out pretty quickly I was a nerd who would be into some of the places he mentioned. He was right! Great information and advice! I really enjoyed doing business with John, who I found interesting, knowledgeable, and excellent to work with, and if I ever need another appraisal, he is definitely the one to call! I would highly recommend him to anyone who wants the best service in this business!
The seller can offer to carry a second mortgage for the difference.If the buyer really wants the home but cannot come up with the difference in cash, making payments or a lump sum payment at a later date to the seller is an option. After the escrow closes, sellers often retain the right to discount the second mortgage, sell it for less than face value to an investor.

In most instances when the cost approach is involved, the overall methodology is a hybrid of the cost and sales comparison approaches (representing both the suppliers' costs and the prices that customers are seeking). For example, the replacement cost to construct a building can be determined by adding the labor, material, and other costs. On the other hand, land values and depreciation must be derived from an analysis of comparable sales data.


A home appraisal is an unbiased estimate of the true (or fair market) value of what a home is worth. All lenders order an appraisal during the mortgage loan process so that there is an objective way to assess the home’s market value and ensure that the amount of money requested by the borrower is appropriate. The appraisal can include recent sales information for similar properties, the current condition of the property, and the location of the property, i.e., insight as to how the neighborhood impacts the property’s value.

The Federal German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts (Bundesverband Deutscher Sachverständiger und Fachgutachter, abbr. BDSF)[22] is the main professional organization encompassing the majority of licensed appraisers in Germany. In recent years, with the move towards a more global outlook in the valuation profession, the RICS has gained a foothold in Germany, somewhat at the expense of the BDSF. Another German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts is the (Deutsche Sachverständigen Gesellschaft, abbr. DESAG)[23] This organization also includes a large number of licensed appraisers in Germany.


These appraisers also perform valuations on commercial property ranging from single to multiple tenant office buildings, shopping centers, retail, industrial, malls, hospitals, health care facilities, warehouses, and hotels to multi-family apartment buildings, co-ops, senior housing, condominium developments, and even vacant land, agricultural, and golf courses.  Regardless of the property type or local zoning, they'll determine the highest and best use of the project and assess the value using the actual or projected cash flow from the property's rent roll and financial statements, using both cap rates for capitalizing year one net operating income (NOI) and discounted cash flow (DCF) of multiple future income streams.  If you're a commercial lender, investor, builder, contractor, architect, or agent, you'll want to use these appraisers to conduct a feasibility analysis of any income producing real estate project you may be considering.  They can also help consult on construction costs and projected absorption rates.  They generally produce a commercial narrative appraisal when engaged for any commercial assignment.
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