Mathematically the distinction between land and improvements in the income approach will have no impact on the overall value when the remaining economic life is more than thirty years. For this reason, it has become quite common to use the Vereinfachtes Ertragswertverfahren (simplified income approach), omitting the land value and the Liegenschaftszins. However, the separate treatment of land and buildings leads to more precise results for older buildings, especially for commercial buildings, which typically have a shorter economic life than residential buildings.
One of the most recognized professional organizations of real estate appraisers in America is the Appraisal Institute (AI). It was formed from the merger of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers and the Society of Real Estate Appraisers. Founded along with others in the 1930s, the two organizations merged in the 1990s to form the AI. This group awards two professional designations: SRA, to residential appraisers, and MAI, to commercial appraisers. The Institute has enacted rigorous regulations regarding the use and display of these designations. For example, contrary to popular belief, "MAI" does not stand for "Member, Appraisal Institute". According to the institute, the letters "do not represent specific words", and an MAI may not use the words "Member, Appraisal Institute" in lieu of the MAI mark. The primary motive for this rule is to prevent trademark dilution.

If you're refinancing a conventional mortgage, a low appraisal can prevent you from doing so. The home needs to appraise at or above the amount you want to refinance for your loan to be approved. However, if your existing mortgage is an FHA mortgage, you can refinance without an appraisal through the FHA Streamline program – a great option for underwater homeowners.
Real property appraisers usually value one property at a time, while assessors value many at once. However, both occupations use similar methods and techniques. As a result, assessors and appraisers tend to take the same courses for certification. In addition to passing a statewide examination, candidates must usually complete a set number of on-the-job hours.
In the United States, the most common usage relates to real estate and personal property appraisals, while the term is often used to describe a person specially appointed by a judicial or quasi-judicial authority to put a valuation on property, e.g. on the items of an inventory of the Tangible Property of an Estate (IRS law) of a deceased person or on land taken for public purposes by the right of eminent domain. Appraisers of imported goods and boards of general appraisers have extensive functions in administering the customs laws of the United States. Merchant appraisers are sometimes appointed temporarily under the revenue laws to value where there is no resident appraiser without holding the office of appraiser (U.S. Rev. Stats. § 2609).[1]

The Orange County Property Appraiser’s Office has been recognized by the Center for Digital Government with a Government Experience Project Award for effective use of online strategies to support meeting constituent needs and community outreach. The Agency was specifically honored for its outstanding website (ocpafl.org), hosting satellite offices during peak citizen engagement months, and for holding Signature Events like the recent “State of Orange County Real Estate.” “We are deeply honored by this recognition and proud that our ever-evolving outreach strategies continue to reach Orange County’s constituents,” said Singh. “It is important that government keep pace with private industry in communicating through technology to meet and exceed the expectations of our highly skilled users.”  


The BauGB defines the Verkehrswert or Marktwert (market value, both terms with identical meaning) as follows: "The market value is determined by the price that can be realized at the date of valuation, in an arm's length transaction, with due regard to the legal situation and the effective characteristics, the nature and lay of the premises or any other subject of the valuation"[19] (non-official translation). The intention, as in other countries, is to include all objective influences and to exclude all influences resulting from the subjective circumstances of the involved parties.
The notice shows property owners their just, assessed and taxable values for the prior and current years. It also provides a comparison of the prior year taxes for each taxing authority to the current proposed property taxes.  Exemptions and reductions in value due to assessment caps are provided, along with any non-ad valorem assessments.  Current year taxes are based on property values, tax exemptions and the proposed tax rate that has been set by the taxing authorities.  

PINZ incorporated much of the membership of the NZIV, the Institute of Plant & Machinery Valuers (IPMV) and the Property & Land Economy Institute of New Zealand (PLEINZ). PINZ now represents the interests of valuers, property and facilities managers, property advisors and plant and machinery valuers. PINZ has developed into one of the largest professional bodies for standards, qualifications and ethics across all facets of the property profession within New Zealand. It works with government, industry and other professional associations, education stakeholders and the media to promote its standards and views.[33]
An appraisal is a licensed appraiser's opinion of a home's market value based on comparable recent sales of homes in the neighborhood. Appraisals are usually ordered on behalf of a buyer's lender to protect the interests of the lender. The lender's underwriter will compare the appraisal price to the final purchase price of the home to ensure the buyer is not borrowing more than the house is worth. If the home appraises lower than the final sale price, the buyer may be able to renegotiate a lower price with the seller. If the seller won't lower the price, the buyer's lender may ask that the buyer put more money toward the down payment in order to make up the difference. Get an instant estimate of your home's value or learn how to increase your home's appraisal value.
Thus, the definition of value used in an appraisal or Current Market Analysis (CMA) analysis and report is a set of assumptions about the market in which the subject property may transact. It affects the choice of comparable data for use in the analysis. It can also affect the method used to value the property. For example, tree value can contribute up to 27% of property value.[8][9]
Any attempt to accommodate him, any appraisal only leads him to go a step further. — Steven Erlanger, New York Times, "Amid the Trumpian Chaos, Europe Sees a Strategy: Divide and Conquer," 13 July 2018 Lenders looked harder at credit histories and property appraisals. — Susan Tompor, Detroit Free Press, "Students aren't the only ones crushed by school debt," 11 July 2018 Your mirror and/or a brutally honest friend are your best advisers on a garment-by-garment appraisal. — Ellen Warren, chicagotribune.com, "Going for a strong shoulder with (still stylish) shoulder pads," 10 July 2018 The median price for a luxury home in Fairfield County—categorized as the top 10% of sales—dropped by 6.9% year-over-year in the first quarter of 2018, according to data from appraisal firm Miller Samuel. — Katherine Clarke, WSJ, "Railroad Chief’s Equestrian Estate Returns for 40% Off," 3 July 2018 Samuels worked for a mortgage company in Landover, Md., and then started her own real estate appraisal business. — Karin Tanabe, Washington Post, "At home with ‘The Real Housewives of Potomac’," 21 June 2018 Services range from: market analysis; marketing; negotiating; on-site representation at the home inspection; repair issues; complying with local/state requirements; paperwork; and appraisal issues. — Anchorage Daily News, "Real estate deal seem to good to be true? Here are a couple warning signs.," 4 May 2018 The big cities of this state are all grappling with the same housing affliction: housing stock that can’t keep pace with rapid population growth and sky-high home appraisals driving people out of their neighborhoods. — Gilbert Garcia, San Antonio Express-News, "City searches for the regulatory sweet spot with short-term rentals," 6 June 2018 The president's own estimates of his net worth are frequently higher than independent appraisals. — chicagotribune.com, "Trump's net worth drops to $2.8 billion, lowest since campaign," 31 May 2018
Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.
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This week, at the IAAO International meeting, valued members of the OCPA team made presentations to their colleagues. Roger Ross gave a wildly popular presentation on the Agency’s commitment to customer service. Terry Taylor and Jeff Miller also presented an educational session on “Agriculture in the Land of Amusement,” sharing information of the diversity of properties within Orange County.  

The income capitalization Approach (often referred to simply as the "income approach") is used to value commercial and investment properties. Because it is intended to directly reflect or model the expectations and behaviors of typical market participants, this approach is generally considered the most applicable valuation technique for income-producing properties, where sufficient market data exists.
In order to account for the usage of the land, the net operating income is reduced by the Liegenschaftszins (interest paid to the land-owner by the owner of the building, i.e., ground rent). The Liegenschaftszins is the product of the land value and the Liegenschaftszinssatz (interest rate for land use). The Liegenschaftszinssatz is the equivalent of the yield—with some important differences—and is also determined by the Gutachterausschuss.
Although appraisers and assessors of real estate work in offices, they may spend a large part of their time conducting site visits to assess properties. Time spent away from the office depends on the specialty. For example, residential appraisers tend to spend less time on office work than commercial appraisers, who might spend up to several weeks analyzing information and writing reports on one property. Appraisers who work for banks and mortgage companies generally spend most of their time inside the office, making site visits only when necessary.
If a home inspection is performed prior to the appraisal and that report is provided to the appraiser, a more useful appraisal can result. This is because the appraiser, who is not an expert home inspector, will be told if there are substantial construction defects or major repairs required. This information can cause the appraiser to arrive at a different, probably lower, opinion of value. This information may be particularly helpful if one or both of the parties requesting the appraisal may end up in possession of the property. This is sometimes the case with property in a divorce settlement or a legal judgment.[16]
PINZ incorporated much of the membership of the NZIV, the Institute of Plant & Machinery Valuers (IPMV) and the Property & Land Economy Institute of New Zealand (PLEINZ). PINZ now represents the interests of valuers, property and facilities managers, property advisors and plant and machinery valuers. PINZ has developed into one of the largest professional bodies for standards, qualifications and ethics across all facets of the property profession within New Zealand. It works with government, industry and other professional associations, education stakeholders and the media to promote its standards and views.[33]
Barkett Realty is a perceptive team of professionals focused in the Tampa Bay area. Relationships and communication are at the forefront of our business and our team culture encourages open communication about market data, trends and activity. We use industry-leading technology, local resources and our network of contacts to identify opportunities for our clients.

In a continuing effort to reduce costs of operating its motor fleet, the Hillsborough County Property Appraiser’s office announces an Invitation for Bids for the leasing of approximately 20 full hybrid (gas-electric) sedan vehicles model year 2017 or later. The deadline for submittal of bids is June 15 at 2 p.m. All interested firms can obtain a copy of the IFB by clicking here.
In a commercial income-producing property this approach capitalizes an income stream into a value indication. This can be done using revenue multipliers or capitalization rates applied to a Net Operating Income (NOI). Usually, an NOI has been stabilized so as not to place too much weight on a very recent event. An example of this is an unleased building which, technically, has no NOI. A stabilized NOI would assume that the building is leased at a normal rate, and to usual occupancy levels. The Net Operating Income (NOI) is gross potential income (GPI), less vacancy and collection loss (= Effective Gross Income) less operating expenses (but excluding debt service, income taxes, and/or depreciation charges applied by accountants).
As mentioned before, an appraiser can generally choose from three approaches to determine value. One or two of these approaches will usually be most applicable, with the other approach or approaches usually being less useful. The appraiser has to think about the "scope of work", the type of value, the property itself, and the quality and quantity of data available for each approach. No overarching statement can be made that one approach or another is always better than one of the other approaches.
In Russia, on par with many other former Soviet Union economies, the profession emerged in the first half of 1990, and represented a clean break with the former practice of industry-specific pricing specialists and with activities of statutory price-setting authorities in the Soviet Union. Currently, property valuation, as it is called, is a specialism within general-purpose "valuation profession", which functions in a self-regulatory mode overseen by "self-regulated professional organizations" of valuers (SROs), i.e. public supervisory entities established under provisions of special legislation (which very loosely can be likened to trade unions). The principal among those is Russian Society of Appraisers, established in 1993 and presently exercising oversight over about half of the valuation profession membership. Among its 6000+ members a sizeable majority are real property valuers, rubbing shoulders with business and intangible assets appraisers. The latter categories of valuers are also allowed to value property, though valuation professionals tend to specialize. In late 2016, it was mandated that valuers should pass through compulsory state-administered attestation process to verify their competence, the details of which as to breakdown in specialization or otherwise remain to be hammered out.
Are you worried about receiving a low appraisal or has your appraisal already been completed at a value less than you expected? We're sorry this has happened to you. In seller's markets, multiple offer situations often drive up the purchase price higher than any comparable sales in the area; which is why in those instances many sellers worry the appraisals will come in low. In buyer's markets, when prices are soft or falling, sellers are also concerned that the appraisal will be a low appraisal.

Also, ask the agents to call the listing agents of pending sales to try to find out the actual sales price of those properties. Listing agents do not have to disclose the sales price, but many are happy to help out because they could find themselves in the same situation. You can always ask if the agent thinks your price will appraise if the agent refuses to divulge the pending price.
The Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) demanded all the states to develop systems for licensing and certifying real estate appraisers.[26] To accomplish this, the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) was formed within the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC), with representatives from the various Federal mortgage regulatory agencies.[27] Thus, currently all the real estate appraisers must be state-licensed and certified. But prior to the 1990s, there were no commonly accepted standards either for appraisal quality or for appraiser licensure. In the 1980s, an ad-hoc committee representing various appraisal professional organizations in the United States and Canada met to codify the best practices into what became known as the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP). The U.S. Savings and Loan Crisis resulted in increased federal regulation via the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989, which required federal lending regulators to adopt appraisal standards. A nonprofit organization, The Appraisal Foundation (TAF), was formed by the same organizations that had developed USPAP, and the copyright for USPAP was signed over to TAF. Federal oversight of TAF is provided by the Appraisal Subcommittee, made up of representatives of various federal lending regulators. TAF carries out its work through two boards: the Appraisal Standards Board promulgates and updates USPAP; the Appraisal Qualifications Board (AQB) promulgates minimum recommended standards for appraiser certification and licensure. During the 1990s, all of the states adopted USPAP as the governing standards within their states and developed licensure standards which met or exceeded the recommendations of TAF. Also, the various state and federal courts have adopted USPAP for real estate litigation and all of the federally lending regulators adopt USPAP for mortgage finance appraisal.[27]
The 2018 Proposed Property Tax Notices (TRIM Notices) will be mailed to property owners on 8/13/2018.  Please take the time to review the information on your notice.  If you have any questions or concerns pertaining to the information on the notice, please contact our office for assistance.  Please be aware that the Manatee County Property Appraiser’s Office does not set the millage rates (tax rates) or fees located in the Non Ad-Valorem Assessments section on the back page of the TRIM Notice.  Any questions pertaining to Non Ad-Valorem Assessments should be directed to the phone number printed on your TRIM Notice.
Pinellas County Property Appraiser Mike Twitty and his staff are dedicated to producing fair and equitable Property Value Assessments. We strive to provide exceptional service to the citizens of Pinellas County. The information on this site has been prepared as a public service, and to give you an overview of some of the activities in the Property Appraiser's Office.
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