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40. Atwood L, Wolf P, Heard‐Costa N. et al Genetic variation in white matter hyperintensity volume in the Framingham study. Stroke 2004351609–1613. [PubMed]
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Jump up ^ Kadakkuzha, Beena M; Akhmedov, Komolitdin (2013-12-14). "Age-associated bidirectional modulation of gene expression in single identified R15 neuron of Aplysia". BMC Genomics. 14 (1): 880. PMC 3909179 . PMID 24330282. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-880.
The most widely seen cognitive change associated with ageing is that of memory. Memory function can be broadly divided into four sections, episodic memory, semantic memory, procedural memory, and working memory.18 The first two of these are most important with regard to ageing. Episodic memory is defined as “a form of memory in which information is stored with ‘mental tags', about where, when and how the information was picked up”.19 An example of an episodic memory would be a memory of your first day at school, the important meeting you attended last week, or the lesson where you learnt that Paris is the capital of France. Episodic memory performance is thought to decline from middle age onwards. This is particularly true for recall in normal ageing and less so for recognition.20 It is also a characteristic of the memory loss seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD).18
Once we hit our late twenties, the brain’s aging process begins and we begin losing neurons—the cells that make up the brain and nervous system. By our sixties, our brains have literally begun to shrink. Though these brain changes may sound a bit scary, the process is natural and it happens to everyone.
Jump up ^ Benton, A.L.; Eslinger, P.; Damasio, A. (1981). "Normative observations on neuropsychological test performances in old age.". Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology. 3: 33–42. doi:10.1080/01688638108403111.
Vascular involvement in cognitive decline and dementia. Epidemiologic evidence from the Rotterdam Study and the Rotterdam Scan Study.
A study funded by the National Institute of Aging followed a group of 678 Roman Catholic sisters and recorded the effects of aging. The researchers used autobiographical essays collected as the nuns joined their Sisterhood. Findings suggest that early idea density, defined by number of ideas expressed and use of complex prepositions in these essays, was a significant predictor of lower risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in old age. Lower idea density was found to be significantly associated with lower brain weight, higher brain atrophy, and more neurofibrillary tangles
The impact of cerebrovascular lesions in Alzheimer disease--a comparative autopsy study.
5. Kolb B, Wishaw I. Brain plasticity and behaviour. Annu Rev Psychol 19984943–64. [PubMed]
People with diabetes had faster shrinkage in a brain region called the hippocampus, which is involved with memory. Smokers had more rapid overall brain shrinkage than nonsmokers, and also showed faster white matter changes.
The study included 1,352 adults who had an average age of 54 and did not have dementia at the start of the study. All were participants of the Framingham Offspring Cohort Study (the children of the participants of the original Framingham Heart Study).
Thanks for letting me vent too. My blood relative and others who are only around her once in a while and don’t help with anything, want to make excuses for her because she’s “old” (so am I) and make me, the one that's trying to help her, out to be the bad guy. Sometimes it’s almost more than I can bear.
9. Buchman, AS, Yu, L, Wilson, RS, Boyle, PA, Schneider, JA, Bennett, DA. Brain pathology contributes to simultaneous change in physical frailty and cognition in old age. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2014; 69: 1536-1544.
55. Langa K, Foster N, Larson E. Mixed dementia. JAMA 20042922901–2908. [PubMed]
56. Fratiglioni L, Launer L, Anderson K, for the Neurologic Diseases in the Elderly Research Group et al Incidence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: a collaborative study of population‐based cohorts. Neurology 200054S10–S15. [PubMed]
Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans.
82. Joosten E. Homocysteine, vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Chemical Laboratory Medicine 200139717–720. [PubMed]
Jump up ^ Lezak, M.D; Howieson, D.B.; Loring, D.W. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511121-7.
Although we have a good understanding of most of the cognitive changes that tend to occur with aging, we understand relatively little about age-related changes in the “social cognition” that we use during social interactions. Social behavior relies on a combination of cognitive and emotional factors, and the influence of aging on these factors is multifaceted. For example, a social impression—an impression of a person one has just met—is built up from factors such as physical appearance, voice quality, facial expressions, and ways the person is behaving. Even though older adults have more limited information-processing capacity, their automatic perceptions of people seem to be intact.
An exciting newer area of research, made possible by technical advances in imaging, is the study of age-related changes in brain activity. It is now possible, for example, to monitor brain activity by measuring how much oxygen (fMRI scanning) or sugar (PET scanning) individual brain regions consume. Even simple acts cause widespread activation of multiple brain regions and, by studying the pattern of active areas during a cognitive task, researchers can learn which networks or regions are task-specific. During normal aging, changes occur in the pattern of stimulation of neural networks, causing increased activation in some areas and decreased activation in others. Studies reveal that when an elderly person performs a cognitive task at the same level as that of a young adult, more areas of the former’s frontal brain regions “light up,” suggesting more brain activity is needed to maintain cognitive performance. Many questions still need to be answered in order for science to understand the full impact of aging on brain network function.
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When you make a cup of tea, use the internet or read a book, you're using your·cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities are the mental skills you need to carry out any task from the most simple to the most complex. These mental skills include awareness, information handling, memory and reasoning.
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